Sudan

Sudan

Although Sudan lies within the tropics, the climate ranges from hyper-arid in the north to tropical wet-and-dry in the far southwest. Temperatures do not vary greatly with the season at any location; the most significant climatic variables are rainfall and the length of the dry season. Variations in the length of the dry season depend on which of two air flows predominates, dry northeasterly winds from the Arabian Peninsula or moist southwesterly winds from the Congo River basin.

From January to March, the country is under the influence of the dry northeasterlies, continental trade winds. There is practically no rainfall countrywide except for a small area in northwestern Sudan in where the winds have passed over the Mediterranean bringing occasional light rains. The sky is fully clear of clouds and the sunshine duration is near the theoretical maximum. By early April, the moist south westerlies have reached southern Sudan, bringing heavy rains and thunderstorms. By July the moist air has reached Khartoum, and in August it extends to its usual northern limits around Abu Hamad, although in some years the moist air mass may not even reach Khartoum. The flow becomes weaker as it spreads north. In September the dry north easterlies begin to strengthen and to push south and by the end of December they cover the entire country. Yambio, close to the border with Zaire, has a nine-month rainy season (April–December) and receives an average of 1,142 millimeters (45.0 in) of rain each year; Khartoum has a three-month rainy season (July–September) with an annual average rainfall of 161 millimeters (6.3 in). (Source: Wikipedia)

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